Monday, May 25, 2020
King Edward VIII did something that monarchs do not have the luxury of doing Ã¢â¬âÃ he fell in love. King Edward was in love with Mrs. Wallis Simpson, not only an American but also a married woman already once divorced. However, in order to marry the woman he loved, King Edward was willing to give up the British throne Ã¢â¬âÃ and he did, on December 10, 1936. To some, this was the love story of the century. To others, it was a scandal that threatened to weaken the monarchy. In reality, the story of King Edward VIII and Mrs. Wallis Simpson never fulfilled either of these notions; instead, the story is about a prince who wanted to be like everyone else. Prince Edward Growing Up: The Struggle Between Royal and Common King Edward VIII was born Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David on June 23, 1894, to the Duke and Duchess of York (the future King George V and Queen Mary). His brother Albert was born a year and a half later, soon followed by a sister, Mary, in April 1897. Three more brothers followed: Harry in 1900, George in 1902, and John in 1905 (died at age 14 from epilepsy). Though his parents surely loved Edward, he thought of them as cold and distant. Edwards father was very strict which caused Edward to fear every call to his fathers library since it usually meant punishment. In May 1907, Edward, only 12Ã years old, was shipped off to the Naval College at Osborne. He was at first teased because of his royal identity but soon garnered acceptance because of his attempt to be treated like any other cadet. After Osborne, Edward continued on to Dartmouth in May 1909. Though Dartmouth was also strict, Edwards stay there was less harsh. During the night of May 6, 1910, King Edward VII, Edwards grandfather who had been outwardly loving to Edward, passed away. Thus, Edwards father became king and Edward became the heir to the throne. In 1911, Edward became the twentieth Prince of Wales. Besides having to learn some Welsh phrases, Edward was to wear a particular costume for the ceremony. [W]hen a tailor appeared to measure me for a fantastic costume . . . of white satin breeches and a mantle and surcoat of purple velvet edged with ermine, I decided things had gone too far. . . . [W]hat would my Navy friends say if they saw me in this preposterous rig? 1 Though it is surely a natural feeling of teenagers to want to fit in, this feeling continued to grow in the prince. Prince Edward began to deplore being set on a pedestal or worshipped - anything that treated him as a person requiring homage.2 As Prince Edward later wrote in his memoirs: And if my association with the village boys at Sandringham and the cadets of the Naval Colleges had done anything for me, it was to make me desperately anxious to be treated exactly like any other boy of my age. 3 World War I In August 1914, when Europe became embroiled in World War I, Prince Edward asked for a commission. The request was granted and Edward was soon posted to the 1st Battalion of the Grenadier Guards. The prince. however, was soon to learn that he was not going to be sent to battle. Prince Edward, extremely disappointed, went to argue his case with Lord Kitchener, the Secretary of State for War. In his argument, Prince Edward told Kitchener that he had four younger brothers who could become heir to the throne if he were killed in battle. While the prince had given a good argument, Kitchener stated that it was not Edward being killed that prevented him from being sent into battle, but rather, the possibility of the enemy taking the prince as prisoner.4 Though posted far from any battle (he was given a position with Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Sir John French), the prince did witness some of the horrors of the war. And whileÃ he wasnt fighting on the front, Prince Edward won the respect of the common soldier for wanting to be there. Edward Likes Married Women Prince Edward was a very good-looking man. He had blonde hair and blue eyes and a boyish look on his face that lasted his entire life. Yet, for some reason, Prince Edward preferred married women. In 1918, Prince Edward met Mrs. Winifred (Freda), Dudley Ward. Despite the fact that theyÃ were about the same age (23), Freda had been married for five years when they met. For 16 years, Freda was Prince Edwards mistress. Edward also had a long-time relationship with Viscountess Thelma Furness. On January 10, 1931, Lady Furness hosted a party at her country house, Burrough Court, where, in addition to Prince Edward, Mrs. Wallis Simpson and her husband Ernest Simpson were invited. It was at this party the two first met. Prince Edward was soon to be infatuated with Mrs. Simpson; however, she didnt make a big impression on Edward at their first meeting. Mrs. Wallis Simpson Becomes Edwards Only Mistress Four months later, Edward and Mrs. Wallis Simpson met again and seven months after that the prince had dinner over at the Simpsons house (staying until 4 a.m.). And though Wallis was a frequent guest of Prince Edwards for the next two years, she was not yet the only woman in Edwards life. In January 1934, Thelma Furness made a trip to the United States, entrusting Prince Edward to the care of Wallis in her absence. Upon Thelmas return, she found that she was no longer welcome in Prince Edwards life - even her phone calls were refused. Four months later, Mrs. Dudley Ward was similarly cut out of the princes life. Mrs. Wallis Simpson was then the princes single mistress. Who Was Mrs. Wallis Simpson? Mrs. Wallis Simpson has become an emotional figure in history. Along with this, many descriptions of her personality and motives for being with Edward have caused some extremely negative descriptions; the nicer ones range from witch to seductress. So who really was Mrs. Wallis Simpson? Mrs. Wallis Simpson was born Wallis Warfield on June 19, 1896, in Maryland, United States. Though Wallis came from a distinguished family in the United States, in the United Kingdom being an American was not highly regarded. Unfortunately, Walliss father died when she was only five months old and left no money;Ã thus his widow was forced to live off the charity given to her by her late husbands brother. As Wallis grew into a young woman, she was not necessarily considered pretty.5Ã However,Ã Wallis had a sense of style and pose that made her distinguished and attractive. She had radiant eyes, good complexion and fine, smooth black hair which she kept parted down the middle for most of her life. Wallis First and Second Marriages On November 8, 1916, Wallis Warfield married Lieutenant Earl Winfield (Win) Spencer, a pilot for the U.S. Navy. The marriage was reasonably good until the end ofÃ World War I, as it was withÃ many ex-soldiers who became bitter at the inconclusiveness of the war and had difficulty adapting back to civilian life. After the armistice, Win began to drink heavily and also became abusive. Wallis eventually left Win and lived six years by herself in Washington. Win and Wallis werent yet divorced and when Win begged her to rejoin him, this time in China where he had been posted in 1922, she went. Things seemed to be working out until Win started drinking again. This time Wallis left him for good and sued for a divorce, which was granted in December 1927. In July 1928, only six months after her divorce, Wallis married Ernest Simpson, who worked in the family shipping business. After their marriage, they settled down in London. It was with her second husband that Wallis was invited to social parties and invited to Lady Furnesss house where she first met Prince Edward. Who Seduced Whom? While many blame Mrs. Wallis Simpson for seducing the prince, it seems rather more likely that she was herself seduced by the glamor and power of being close to the heir of Britains throne. At first, Wallis was just glad to have become included in the princes circle of friends. According to Wallis, it was in August 1934 that their relationship became more serious. During that month, the prince took a cruise on Lord Moynes yacht, theÃ Rosaura. Although both Simpsons were invited, Ernest Simpson could not accompany his wife on the cruise because of a business trip to the United States. It was on this cruise, Wallis stated, that she and the prince crossed the line that marks the indefinable boundary between friendship and love.6 Prince Edward became increasingly infatuated with Wallis. But did Wallis love Edward? Again, many people have said that she did not and that she was a calculating woman who either wanted to be a queen or who wanted money. It seems more probable that whileÃ she was not infatuated with Edward, she loved him. Edward Becomes King At five minutes to midnight on January 20, 1936, King George V, Edwards father, passed away. Upon King George Vs death, Prince Edward became King Edward VIII. To many, Edwards grief over his fathers death seemed much greater than the grieving of his mother or his siblings. Though death affects people differently, Edwards grief might have been greater for his fathers death also signified his acquisition of the throne, complete with the responsibilities and eminence that he deplored. King Edward VIII didnt win many supporters at the beginning of his reign. His first act as the new king was to order the Sandringham clocks, which were always a half an hour fast, set to the correct time. This symbolized to many a king who was to deal with the trivial and who rejected his fathers work. Still, the government and the people of Great Britain had high hopes for King Edward. He had seen war, traveled the world, been to every part of theÃ British empire, seemed sincerely interested in social problems, and had a good memory. So what went wrong? Many things. First, Edward wanted to change many of the rules and become a modern monarch. Unfortunately, this caused Edward to distrust many of his advisors because he saw them as symbols and perpetrators of the old order. He dismissed many of them. Also, in an effort to reform and curb monetary excesses, he cut the salaries of many royal staff employees to an extreme degree. Employees became unhappy. The king also began to be late or cancel appointments and events at the last minute. State papers that were sent to him were not protected, some statesmen worried that German spies had access to these papers. At first, these papers were returned promptly, but soon it would be weeks before they were returned, some of which had obviously not even been looked at. Wallis Distracted the King One of the main reasons he was late or canceled events was because of Mrs. Wallis Simpson. His infatuation with her had grown so extreme that he was severely distracted from his State duties. Some thought she might be a German spy handing State papers over to the German government. The relationship between King Edward and Mrs. Wallis Simpson came to an impasse when the king received a letter from Alexander Hardinge, the kings private secretary, that warned him that the press would not remain silent much longer and that the government might resign en masse if this continued. King Edward was faced with three options: give up Wallis, keep Wallis and government would resign, or abdicate and give up the throne. Since King Edward had decided that he wanted to marry Mrs. Wallis Simpson (he told Walter Monckton that he had decided to marry her as early as 1934), he had little choice but to abdicate.7 King Edward VIII Abdicates Whatever her original motives, until the end, Mrs. Wallis Simpson didnt mean for the king to abdicate. Yet the day soon came when King Edward VIII was to sign the papers that would end his rule. At 10 a.m. on December 10, 1936, King Edward VIII, surrounded by his three surviving brothers, signed the six copies of the Instrument of Abdication: I, Edward the Eighth, ofÃ Great Britain, Ireland, and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Emperor of India, do hereby declare My irrevocable determination to renounce the Throne for Myself and for My descendants, and My desire that effect should be given to this Instrument of Abdication immediately. 8 The Duke and Duchess of Windsor At the moment of King Edward VIIIs abdication, his brother Albert, the next in line for the throne, became King George VIÃ (Albert was the father of Queen Elizabeth II). On the same day as the abdication, King George VI bestowed upon Edward the family name of Windsor. Thus, Edward became the Duke of Windsor and when he married, Wallis became the Duchess of Windsor. Mrs. Wallis Simpson sued for a divorce from Ernest Simpson, which was granted, and Wallis and Edward married in a small ceremony on June 3, 1937. To Edwards great sorrow, he received a letter on the eve of his wedding from King George VI stating that by abdicating, Edward was no longer entitled to the title Royal Highness. But, out of generosity for Edward, King George was going to allow Edward the right to hold that title, but not his wife or any children. This greatly pained Edward for the rest of his life, for it, was a slight to his new wife. After the abdication, the Duke and Duchess were exiled from Great Britain. Although a number of years had not been established for the exile, many believed it would only last a few years; instead, it lasted their entire lives. Royal family members shunned the couple. The Duke and Duchess lived out most of their lives in France with the exception of a short term in the Bahamas as governor. Edward passed away on May 28, 1972, a month shy of his 78th birthday. Wallis lived for 14Ã more years, many of which were spent in bed, secluded from the world. She passed away on April 24, 1986, two months shy of 90. 1. Christopher Warwick,Ã AbdicationÃ (London: Sidgwick Jackson, 1986) 29.2. Warwick,Ã AbdicationÃ 30.3. Warwick,Ã AbdicationÃ 30.4. Warwick,Ã AbdicationÃ 37.5. Paul Ziegler,Ã King Edward VIII: The Official BiographyÃ (London: Collins, 1990) 224.6. Warwick,Ã AbdicationÃ 79.7. Ziegler,Ã King EdwardÃ 277.8. Warwick,Ã AbdicationÃ 118. Sources: Bloch, Michael (ed).Ã Wallis Edward: Letters 1931-1937.Ã London: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1986. Warwick, Christopher.Ã Abdication. London: Sidgwick Jackson, 1986. Ziegler, Paul.Ã King Edward VIII: The Official Biography. London: Collins, 1990.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Critical Essay by Martin Simpson SOURCE: Simpson, Martin. Chopins A Shameful Affair. Explicator, 45, no. 1 (fall 1986): 59-60. In the following essay, Simpson discusses images of nature and society in A Shameful Affair. Mildred Orme, in Kate Chopins A Shameful Affair, is a socially conventional and sexually repressed young woman who has come to the Kraummer farm to escape the sexual demands that were made on her in civilized, urban society. Chopin uses fertile nature imagery to show Mildred being drawn out of the realm of sheltered social convention and into a natural world that is rich with sensuous physical surroundings. Here Mildred is forced to recognize and struggle with her sexuality. Mildred is obviously aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The farmhouse itself, as a man-made structure, can be considered an island of civilization amidst the swelling acres [of] undulating wheat that gleam in the sun like a golden sea (148) and connote pulsating fertility. At first Mildred remains seated in the snuggest corner of the big front porch of the Kraummer farmhouse, behind her Browning or her Ibsen (148), which conveys the image of someone who is trying to isolate herself intellectually in a farmhouse that is itself isolated in an ocean of natural fertility. Mildred has to abandon her island of civilized social convention when she becomes interested in Fred Evelyn, and nature begins to take its effect on her when she does. She must go down a long, narrow footpath through the bending wheat (150) to encounter Fred at the river. This footpath is like a tunnel through the yellow wheat that reaches high above her waist (150) on either side, which suggests the nearly overwhelming aspect of the fecundity that is almost enveloping her. Mildreds close contact with her sensuous surroundings causes her own repressed sexuality to come to the surface. Her brown eyes become filled with a reflected golden light (150) from the wheat as she passes through it, and her lips and cheeks become ripe with color that the sun had coaxed there (150). Nature has now begun to erode the self-control that Mildred has exercised over her passions. MildredsShow MoreRelatedEssay on Shall we Dance718 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageshis association with the art of dancing was deemed shameful, and he had a good reason to believe that. Not only did he hear from Donny, a close friend and co-worker of Sugiyama who had practiced the art of dancing for 5 years, that dancing is a Ã¢â¬Å"Dirty lecherÃ¢â¬ , he also saw the banter reactions of his co-workers when they found out that Donny was dancing. To top it off, there was even a phrase said in the video suggesting that although this Ã¢â¬Å"shamefulÃ¢â¬ dancing is not appropriate in the Japanese cultureRead MoreNo Name Woman, The Issue of Community Control Essay1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesother communities use moral or social codes to keep their communities in check. In the autobiographical essay No Name Woman, by Maxine Kingston, Kingstons aunt disrupts her tight knit community by having an illegitimate child as a result of an affair. Her traditional Chinese community ran by superstition f inds it necessary to punish her and brand her a nameless face to ensure the villages stability. Any means of unsettling this stability would disrupt the social order and threaten the communityRead MoreInfidelity Is Not That Big Of A Deal1580 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswith the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ analysis. Infidelity is the largest opprobrium around the world. It is well know that adultery will more than often lead to divorce yet Esther Perel a well-known psychotherapist, states that divorce is not as shameful as it used to be. It is more shameful to be with someone who has cheating on you then to get a divorce. People used to get divorces because they were unhappy, now divorces happen because they could be happier. However Perel has exclaimed that she has encountered aRead MoreTheme Of Womens Stockings In Death Of A Salesman889 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe Ã¢â¬Å"well knownÃ¢â¬ salesman had an affair. Even though Willy has a supportive and loving wife, he still goes out and seeks pleasure from another woman due to his loneliness Ã¢â¬Å"I get so lonelyÃ¢â¬ . Throughout the play the stockings themselves are presented many times. The significance of the stockings shows how commitment is presented between Willy and Linda as the motif that their relationship is clearly falling apart due to the affair. Linda is not aware of the affair, yet the behavior of her husbandRead MoreExamples Of John Proctor In The Crucible712 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagescry witchcraft. However, his guilt over his affair with Abigail makes his position problematic because he is guilty of the very hypocrisy that he despises in others. In The Crucible, Arthur Miller portrays John Proctor as a decent man because he fights for his own dignity and the freedom for others. Throughout the story, John expresses qualities of an honest man by defending his wife Elizabeth when she is accused of hurting Abigail, after he had an affair with his servant Abigail Williams. John isRead MoreNurse2025 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIn her stories the protagonists really do love their husband, although some commit adultery or fantasize about an affair. In some way the protagonist is finding a way to exult their freedom. The recurring themes are seen in the following short stories: 1. Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ 2. Ã¢â¬Å"The StormÃ¢â¬ 3. Ã¢â¬Å"A Respectable WomenÃ¢â¬ 4. Ã¢â¬Å"A Shameful AffairÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an Hour,Ã¢â¬ hints thatRead MoreAnalysis Of Creon And Antigone : Kinship Versus The State711 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesstate created conflicts with traditional values. What are your thoughts on this tension between the state and the family/ human affairs? In history, families have been forced to choose between the country they live in now and the country from which they originated to show to which they are more dedicated. Knowing this, the tensions between the state and family/human affairs personally seem to be justified in the play. If all of a sudden America were to go into a civil war with Mexico, no would deemRead MoreEssay on Adultery Explored in The Scarlet Letter1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesadultery for The Scarlet Letter, his nineteenth century novel of seventeenth century sexual repression and hypocrisy (Zabarenko PG), demonstrates a delicate yet changing climate with regard to infidelity. Historically, carrying on an adulterous affair back in such an era of Puritanism and traditional values was not taken lightly; in fact, by todays standards, such horrific treatment for what is now considered an everyday occurrence was more harsh than murders suffer by current standards. ThoseRead MoreBarrelmaker Brimful of Love1408 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnovella is about a cooper who is in love with a girl, and with the help of an old lady, is married to the girl. The story ends with the girl, Osen, being wrongfully accused of having an affair with the master of the house, at which she volunteers to work. Osen responds to the accusation by planning to actually have an affair with the man. The two make arrangements to have sex, but just before they can, OsenÃ¢â¬â¢s husband catches them in the act. Osen kills herself, and the man flees the house naked and frightenedRead MoreThe United States Is One Of The Most Culturally Diverse1557 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespresent themselves and live their life. But many of times the way one acts socially is different from the way they should act based on there religion. In Japan, religion is not shared amongst a community or even discussed openly but is a private family affair. There is no one preaching or readings from sacred writing s or religious prayers at schools because what they believe is based on a moral code. That if they live the way of passion and love that nothing shall hurt or harm them or their family. By
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Jacob Dretzka Professor Wright May 23rd, 2016 Midterm Essay Questions Essay #1: Political Parties in America favor electoral victories over achieving policy outcomes because of the way our parties are structured. As noted in the readings from, Ã¢â¬Å"Parties, Politics, and Public Policy in AmericaÃ¢â¬ by Marc Hetherington and Bruce Larson, American political parties are largely fragmented. The reading describes how our main parties, the Democrats and Republicans, are fragmented across various sub-groups, states, and ideologies. As stated in the Hetherington and Larson reading, one of the main characteristics of our political parties that make them favor electoral victories over policy initiatives is that there are fifty different states parties that make up the national parties and that each of those state parties can have different ideological goals. The Democratic Parties of North Dakota or Alabama will probably not have the same policy beliefs or goals as the Democratic Parties of California or New Jersey. Similar to how the Republican Party of C onnecticut is probably more moderate that the Republican Party of Mississippi (Hetherington Larson). Our national parties do not dictate the ideological goals of the state parties. Both parties have a national policy agenda, but the State Parties and regular individuals of each party are not required to abide by these policy goals. So, this could lead to parties favoring electoral victories because those types of victories areShow MoreRelatedAmerica Is Known For Its Freedom Of Speech1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe dynamics of the American political system gives the American people a voice in what goes on in the government. The right to vote gives all citizens the opportunity to vote on various positions in the government and local areas. Political parties perform a number of functions for the American political system. The functions and components of political parties, interest group activity, electoral politics, public opinion, political participation, and political socializ ation, all are essentialRead MoreCalifornia Politics And Government : A Practical Approach1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCalifornia Politics and Government: A practical Approach, helps students understand the government and politics. It describes the principles used in the state government and the relevance of these to the nowadays students and the future ones. The book has clear examples and explanations that help the students understand the California politics. It includes budgetary politics and policies, California law and court cases, government regulations, policymaking and elections in terms of political parties andRead MoreEssay about The Five Models Reflecting Public Opinion in Politics650 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesA belief shared by most people, the voice of the people. The opinion of the public is the popular view. Opinions bring public beliefs to the attention of decision/policy makers. Public opinion is that opinion which government must heed to. Public opinion is reflected by public policy through five models according to Norman Luttbeg. The Rational-Activist Model in which voters use elections as a policy expression. Individual citizens are expected to be informed politically, involved, rationalRead MoreSocial Sciences: A Foundation Course1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿SOSC A101 Social Sciences: A Foundation Course Assignment 2 Question: a What is a political party? b Ã¢â¬ËPolitical parties are powerless in Hong Kong because they cannot form government and make policies.Ã¢â¬â¢ Discuss. Student name: Lam Tsz Ho Student no: S11421101 Introduction In this year, Occupy Central arouses a lot of controversies. It is a civil disobedience movement which began in Hong Kong on September 28, 2014. It calls on thousands of protesters to block roads and paralyse Hong Kongs financialRead MoreWhich Is More Effective at Bringing about Political Change, Political Parties or Social Movements?1462 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmovements or New politics parties are more effective with bringing about change with a focus on green politics. I will look at the structures of a political system that enables Green political parties to gain representation. Often Green political parties start from grassroots social movements, which can make it difficult to separate the influence that they have on policy change from the movement. Traditionally New political parties, with the exception of Green and new religious parties (Boyeller, 2014)Read MoreChallenges To Party Government Case Study1268 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Chapter 2: The Challenge to Party Government Issues that once sharply divided parties have now thinned on two levels. The first is the reduction of intense ideological polarization like anti-system parties, which threatened the principles of democracy. These parties have either gone wawa or moderated to be more acceptable, allowing for party alignment and partnership. Now the only options in voting are democratic. The second level of change occurred to politics that was in the mainstream. ThereRead MoreBiography of Winston Churchill 1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbecome a public hero for the British people. Yet, immediately after the war, Churchill did not return to the prime minister seat because of a shocking defeat in his re-election, despite his immense reputation he gained from the war. Though lauded by the British population for his prowess as a wartime leader, ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s conservative politics were out of touch with a population ready for post-war relief and led to his defeat in the 1945 election. Churchill got his conservative politics from beingRead MorePublic Opinion On European Integration1647 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespast, citizens held mostly absent minded opinions on European Union politics, but today there exists great polarization in attitudes about European integration. The apparent rise in Ã¢â¬Å"EuroskepticismÃ¢â¬ in the post-Maastricht Treaty political environment has been widely discussed and debated in EU scholarship, and marks a stark change from the elite dominated days bygone. EU issues have increasingly made their way into the politics of national governments, and subsequently national citizens have becomeRead MoreThe Factors Of Political Socialization1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgrowing up as humans, our political knowledge is one of the things that does not derive from one specific source. Our thoughts on politics is constantly evolving and maturing as we encounter different agents throughout our lives. These agents of political socialization include our fam ily, our education, the media, and many more. They shape our values and beliefs from the moment we are born to the moment we die. Our family environment contributes to our interest in politics in the future, our educationRead MoreTo What Extent Does Democracy in the Uk Suffer from a Participation Crisis?1234 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPolitics Essay To what extent does democracy in the UK suffer from a participation crisis? (25 marks) There are a lot of ways in which citizens can participate in politics in the UK without necessarily having to vote for example: joining a political party, boycotting, and even signing petitions and fund raising. However, there is an argument that there has been a participation crisis over the past years in the UK. A participation crisis is when less and less citizens take part in political
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Examining the relationship between Job Satisfaction, Employee Commitment and Turnover? Answer: Introduction: Data analysis for any industry or business is very important. For any industry or business, an employee plays an important role for the development of the company or industry. Job satisfaction of employee is very important for the healthy growth of the company. Employee commitment is very important factor in any industry to achieve the goals in terms of turnover of the company. For the progress of any company or business, the job satisfaction of employee, commitment of employee is very important part. Here, we want to check the relationship between the job satisfaction of the employee, commitment of the employee and turnover of the company. We have to analyse how the progress of company depends on job satisfaction of the employee, commitment of the employee. We have to check whether the turnover of the company is directly related to these factors or not. For this purpose, the ordinary data is collected from the employee by using the questionnaire. The data collected from employee is used for the further data analysis. This type of data analysis is very important in the scenario of the management team for taking proper action within the company or business. Let us see all this statistical data analysis in detail given as below: Data: Data collection is the first step in any data analysis for any business or company. In this topic, we have to see how the data is collected from the employee of the company. For the study of relationship between the turnover of the company and job satisfaction and commitment of the employee, we select a particular company. From this company, we select 200 employees for the purpose of data collection. The questionnaire given to all these employee and data collected through these questionnaires. Then data collected in a tabular format according to different variables. The information is collected for the different variables such as job satisfaction of the employee, commitment of the employee and the turnover of the employee. The turnover of the company is given in the $ and the information about the job satisfaction and employee commitment is given in the scale system in particular ordinary scale. The codes for these ordinary scales are summarised in the following table: Code Description 0 Very Low 1 Low 2 Moderate 3 Good 4 Better 5 Best Some more information about the data regarding the relationship between the employee commitment, job satisfaction of employee and total turnover of the company is given in the appendix section at the last part of this study. Now, let us see the data analysis for the collected data in detail given in the next topic. Data Analysis: Data analysis is very essential part for the collected data for analysing the facts related to the different variables under study. For this study, we have to study the relationship between the three variables such as the employee commitment, job satisfaction of the employee and turnover of the company. First of all, we have to see the information about the frequency distribution for the variables given in the data set. The frequency distribution for the job satisfaction of the employee is summarised in the following table: Statistics Job_Satisfaction N Valid 200 Missing 0 Job_Satisfaction Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Very low 28 14.0 14.0 14.0 Low 43 21.5 21.5 35.5 Moderate 26 13.0 13.0 48.5 Good 38 19.0 19.0 67.5 Better 29 14.5 14.5 82.0 Best 36 18.0 18.0 100.0 Total 200 100.0 100.0 The job satisfactions of the employee are arranged from the very low job satisfaction to best satisfaction in the above table. Total of 200 employees filled up the questionnaire and this data from questionnaire is used for the data analysis. For the variable job satisfaction, most of the employee respond as the low job satisfaction as an answer to asked question about job satisfaction. About 43 employees noted low job satisfaction and about 36 employees are noted best job satisfaction in the given questionnaire. 36 employees said that they had best job satisfaction with their job in the company. The diagrammatic representation for this frequency distribution is represented by using the bar diagram which is given as below: The above bar diagram shows the comparison between the different levels of the job satisfaction. The bar for the low job satisfaction is very high and the bar for good job satisfaction is on the second place. The respond as the moderate job satisfaction is noted by minimum respondents or employee of the company. Now, we have to see the frequency distribution for the variable employee commitment. The frequency distribution for this variable is summarised in the following table. The same codes are used for this frequency distribution as used in the above frequency distribution. Statistics Commitment N Valid 200 Missing 0 Commitment Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Very Low 38 19.0 19.0 19.0 Low 28 14.0 14.0 33.0 Moderate 33 16.5 16.5 49.5 Good 30 15.0 15.0 64.5 Better 34 17.0 17.0 81.5 Best 37 18.5 18.5 100.0 Total 200 100.0 100.0 From the above frequency distribution, it was observed that 38 employees noted the response the very low commitment at their work within the company. About 37 employees are responded as the best commitment during their work within the company. The detail frequency distribution for the different ordinary scale is represent in the above table. The diagrammatic representation of this frequency distribution is given by using the bar diagram which is given as below: The above bar diagram for the variable commitment of the employee is given as above and it gives the comparison between different ordinary levels for the variable commitment. The bar for the very low commitment is very high as compared to other commitment levels. Now, we have to see some other statistical analysis for given variables in the data set. We have to see the descriptive statistics for the third variable as turnover of the company. The study of descriptive statistics consist of the mean, mode, median, minimum, maximum etc. The descriptive statistics for the variable turnover of the company is summarised in the following tables. Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Sum Mean Std. Deviation Variance Turnover 200 1022.00 1110557.00 5552.7850 2636.30951 6950127.808 Valid N (listwise) 200 Some more descriptive statistics for the variable turnover of the company is given in the following table: Descriptive Statistics N Range Maximum Mean Skewness Kurtosis Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic Std. Error Statistic Std. Error Turnover 200 8860.00 9882.00 186.41523 -.115 .172 -1.241 .342 Valid N (listwise) 200 Now, we have to see the diagrammatic representation for the variable turnover of the company by using the box plot. We have to see the spread of the distribution of the variable turnover of the company by using the box plot which is given as below: Case Processing Summary Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Turnover 200 100.0% 0 0.0% 200 100.0% The above box plot explains the distribution of the turnover of the company. Now, we have to see some other diagrammatic representation for the variable turnover of the company by using the histogram for the variable turnover of the company. Let us see this histogram in detail given as below: The above histogram does not show any pattern or bell shaped curve. This means that the above histogram or the data for the turnover for the company does not follow the approximate normal distribution. The study of inferential statistics plays an important role in the data analysis for the prediction purpose. The inferential statistics includes the study of testing of hypothesis. By using testing of hypothesis, we check the different claims regarding the variables in the data set. Here, we have to check the claim whether there is a same or different turnover for the company with employee having the different ordinary scale of their job satisfaction. For checking this claim, we have to use the one way analysis of variance or ANOVA test in short. Let us see this one way analysis of variance or ANOVA in detail given as below: The null hypothesis for this one way ANOVA test is given as below: Null hypothesis: H0: There is a same turnover for the company with an employee having different scale of job satisfaction. The alternative hypothesis for this one way ANOVA test is given as below: Alternative hypothesis: Ha: There is not a same turnover for the company with an employee having different scale of job satisfaction. Now, we have to see the analysis for this one way ANOVA which is summarised in the following table: The ANOVA table for this test is given as below: ANOVA Turnover Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 66067636.084 5 13213527.217 1.946 .088 Within Groups 1317007797.671 194 6788699.988 Total 1383075433.755 199 For this ANOVA table, we get the p-value as 0.088 and we are given a level of significance as 0.05 or 5%. We know the decision rule is given as below: Decision rule: We reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is less than the given level of significance or alpha value. We do not reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is greater than the given level of significance or alpha value. Here, we are given as level of significance or alpha = 0.05 and we have p-value = 0.088 p-value alpha value So, we do not reject the null hypothesis that there is a same turnover for the company with an employee having different scale of job satisfaction. Now, we have to check another claim regarding the commitment of the employee. Let us see this test in detail given as below: For this hypothesis test we have to use same analysis as we seen in the above test. We have to use the one way analysis of variance or ANOVA test for checking the claim about the commitment of the employee. The null hypothesis for this one way ANOVA test is given as below: Null hypothesis: H0: There is a same turnover for the company with an employee having different scale of employee commitment. The alternative hypothesis for this one way ANOVA test is given as below: Alternative hypothesis: Ha: There is not a same turnover for the company with an employee having different scale of employee commitment. Now, we have to see the analysis for this one way ANOVA test by using the ANOVA table. The ANOVA table for this test is summarised as below: ANOVA Turnover Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 5032708.153 5 1006541.631 .142 .982 Within Groups 1378042725.602 194 7103313.019 Total 1383075433.755 199 For this ANOVA table, we get the p-value as 0.982 and we are given a level of significance as 0.05 or 5%. We know the decision rule is given as below: Decision rule: We reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is less than the given level of significance or alpha value. We do not reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is greater than the given level of significance or alpha value. Here, we are given as level of significance or alpha = 0.05 and we have p-value = 0.982 p-value alpha value So, we do not reject the null hypothesis that there is a same turnover for the company with an employee having different scale of employee commitment. For this study regarding the relationship between the job satisfaction of the employee, commitment of the employee and turnover of the company, we made some conclusions which are summarised in the next topic. Summary: For the variable job satisfaction, most of the employee respond as the low job satisfaction as an answer to asked question about job satisfaction. About 43 employees noted low job satisfaction and about 36 employees are noted best job satisfaction in the given questionnaire. 36 employees said that they had best job satisfaction with their job in the company. It was observed that 38 employees noted the response the very low commitment at their work within the company. About 37 employees are responded as the best commitment during their work within the company. We do not reject the null hypothesis that there is a same turnover for the company with an employee having different scale of job satisfaction. We do not reject the null hypothesis that there is a same turnover for the company with an employee having different scale of employee commitment. References: Robert V. Hogg, Allen T. Craig, Joseph W. McKean, An Introduction to Mathematical Statistics, 6th ed., Prentice Hall, 2004. George Casella, Roger L. Berger, Statistical Inference, 2nd ed., Duxbury Press, 2001. David R. Cox, D. V. Hinkley, Theoretical Statistics, Chapman Hall/CRC, 1979. Peter J. Bickel, Kjell A. Doksum, Mathematical Statistics, Volume 1, Basic Ideas and Selected Topics, 2rd ed. Prentice Hall, 2001. S. Ferguson, Mathematical Statistics: A Decision Theoretic Approach, Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1967 Harald Cramr, Mathematical Methods of Statistics, Princeton, 1946 Schervish, Mark J. (1995). Theory of statistics (Corr. 2nd print. ed.). New York: Springer Moses, Lincoln E. (1986) Think and Explain with Statistics, Addison-Wesley Hays, William Lee, (1973) Statistics for the Social Sciences, Holt, Rinehart and Winston Rubin, Donald B.; Little, Roderick J. A., Statistical analysis with missing data, New York: Wiley 2002 Mosteller, F., Tukey, J. W. (1977). Data analysis and regression. Boston: Addison-Wesley. Mann, Prem S. (1995). Introductory Statistics (2nd ed.). Wiley.
Friday, April 10, 2020
10 Popular Content Marketing Buzzwords for 2016 Whether its through meetings, brainstorming sessions or reading articles, this year you will encounter these specific words even more often. Some are fairly new, but others have been passed around the content marketing industry for some time and are still on everyones lips. So its now time to scrutinize their importance under a microscope. Whether its through meetings, brainstorming sessions or reading articles, this year you will encounter these specific words even more often. Some are fairly new, but others have been passed around the content marketing industry for some time and are still on everyones lips. So its now time to scrutinize their importance under a microscope.1. Content ShockOnce a company has recognized and understood the importance of content marketing, the focus will then shift to content shock. This term is explained in a blog by author and social media consultant Mark Schaefer and has been hotly debated ever since.The article describes a scenario where the compe tition for consumers attention becomes increasingly difficult and costly for businesses and is therefore no longer worthwhile for some. Because of the daily content deluge, users are simply presented with too much content per day and too few hours in which to digest it.According to Schaefer, those wanting to avoid content shock have some options, including:Focusing on a niche areaSpending more money on contentSpending more money on content distributionFocusing on new types of content and channels that are not (yet) used by rivalsSo what is content shock all about? It is clear that, in the future, non-relevant content will have very poor prospects.2. HolisticHolistic means concerning the whole. In content marketing, the term appears mainly in connection with content that covers a subject comprehensively.As early as 2014, Searchmetrics had listed holistic content as crucial for content ranking in their study of ranking factors. Content should not only be relevant to keywords but also to the topic and its related terms. The more thematic aspects of a topic covered by the content, the more holistic and thus relevant the content is for users conducting different searches.Holistic content is therefore well-researched, deals with a subject as comprehensively as possible from various aspects and includes topic-relevant terms, variants and synonyms. So individual keywords can be used to form so-called content clusters.3. Data-Driven ContentHow can we use data to create content relevant to our target group? This is a question that confronts an increasing number of companies. They analyze data, from social media for instance, to gain important insights into how to engage and communicate with their target audience.However, evaluating and usefully linking data from all relevant touchpoints presents companies with major challenges. But there are a number of tools available for this purpose.4. Native AdvertisingSince 2014, this particular Buzzword has been buzzing around the advertising and media world. It received particularly prominent attention once it became known that the prestigious New York Times relies on native advertising.Native advertising is a paid method of distributing content. Here, the content of one business is embedded in the editorial environment of another site, such as a news website. In its new context, this content is adapted to suit the design and layout of each page so that, at first glance, it hardly differs from the remaining content.The concept of native advertising is always hotly debated, with the ambiguous division between advertising and editorial content often heavily criticized. On the other hand, provided it is thematically appropriate and well-crafted, its proponents see this advertising method as offering a new revenue stream for media as well as relevant user content.5. Content Discovery PlatformsIn the broadest sense, the use of content discovery platforms can be seen as a form of native advertising. Still rela tively new on the market, studies show many companies already rate this paid channel for content distribution as very effective.It involves content-recommendation platforms that send the user, so to speak, on a content discovery tour. Content discovery platforms like Outbrain have a large publisher network that includes, for example, news sites, blogs and business portals.Among items from their own publisher network, they also recommend thematically matching contributions from other sources to their users. Readers are then briefed about additional content on a topic through media such as blog posts, videos or infographics. For companies, this offers the opportunity to distribute their content through channels other than their own in order to increase their reach and attract new users.6. Promoted PostMany corporate posts create little impression, resulting in less organic traffic via social media.That can change for those prepared to reach a little deeper into their pockets in order to reach their target audience via social media. Whether as a sponsored update on LinkedIn, a promoted tweet on Twitter, or a promoted post on Facebook, in the future, anyone who wants to reach a lot of users with relevant content must get it placed beside high-quality content and social advertising.7. Influencer MarketingInfluencer Marketing is resurging and is now becoming increasingly important for content marketing. This is because, when it comes to spreading their own content, many companies rely on the cooperation of experts who have the attention of the respective target group.Therefore, tools that help identify appropriate opinion leaders and build relationships with them are also on the rise, such as BuzzSumo and NinjaOutreach.Whether they are bloggers, YouTubers, or Twitter celebrities, influencer marketing relies on the fact that cooperation brings both parties an advantage a win-win situation.Companies can also, for example, offer influencers exclusive background inform ation, free product samples or event invitations.Some tips for successful influencer relations can be found here.8. StorytellingStorytelling is not new. However, how to tell stories in the best possible way has occupied the media, including content marketers, again this year.As before, the goal of storytelling is to tell stories in a way that evoked an emotional response and is memorable. People still love stories that make them feel good.9. Personalized ContentDelivering customized content that is tailored to a users interests and reaches him or her at the right time, and in the right place, is a big issue for the future.The more website content can be geared towards the individual user, the higher conversion rates will be.Whether its individualized products for every reader or store content perfectly suited to the users particular needs, how to create such personalized content in different ways is critical.10. Content PerformanceThose wishing to understand what content achieves it s purpose can only evaluate this via regular performance measurement.However, measuring the success of content has remained a major challenge for companies this year. What metrics a company should use will always depend on the what the content consists of, where its distributed and its intended outcome.According to the CMI study, the quality of leads, the number of sales and the conversion rates are currently the most important metrics for measuring content outcomes. But many companies are still tempted to measure success by their search engine rankings and traffic volumes.ConclusionCould you measure how holistic your own content performance is? This year, theres still no end in sight for content marketing jargon, but the meaning of these individual terms are easy to learn. And just remember that the term content marketing was once a buzzword!
Monday, March 9, 2020
How Supreme Court Tie Votes Could Impact Major Cases Beyond all the political ranker and rhetoric spurred by the death of Antonin Scalia, the absence of the strongly conservative justice could have a major impact on several key cases to be decided by the U.S. Supreme Court. Background Before ScaliaÃ¢â¬â¢s death, the justices considered to be social conservatives held a 5-4 edge over those considered liberals, and many controversial cases were indeed decided in 5-4 votes. Now with ScaliaÃ¢â¬â¢s absence, some especially high-profile cases pending before the Supreme Court may result in 4-4 tie votes. These cases deal with issues like access to abortion clinics; equal representation; religious liberty; and deportation of illegal immigrants. The possibility for tie votes will remain until a replacement for Scalia is nominated by President Obama and approved by the Senate. This means the Court will probably deliberate with only eight justices for the rest of its current 2015 term and well into the 2016 term, which starts in October 2106. While President Obama promised to fill ScaliaÃ¢â¬â¢s vacancy as soon as possible, the fact that Republicans control the Senate is likely to make that a hard promise for him to keep. What Happens If the Vote is a Tie? There are no tie-breakers. In the event of tie vote by the Supreme Court, the rulings issued by the lower federal courts or state supreme courts are allowed to remain in effect as if the Supreme Court had never even considered the case. However, the rulings of the lower courts will have no Ã¢â¬Å"precedent settingÃ¢â¬ value, meaning they will not apply in other states as with Supreme Court decisions. The Supreme Court can also reconsider the case when it again has 9 justices. The Cases in Question The highest profile controversies and cases still to be decided by the Supreme Court, with or without a replacement for Justice Scalia, include: Religious Freedom: Birth Control Under ObamacareÃ In the case of Zubik v. Burwell, employees of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Pittsburgh objected to participating in any way with the birth control coverage provisions of the Affordable Care Act Ã¢â¬â Obamacare Ã¢â¬â claiming that being forced to do so would violate their First Amendment rights under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. Prior to the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to hear the case, seven circuit courts of appeals rule in favor of the federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s right to impose the requirements of Affordable Care Act on the employees. Should the Supreme Court arrive at a 4-4 decision, the rulings of the lower courts would remain in effect. Religious Freedom: Separation of Church and State In the case of Trinity Lutheran Church of Columbia, Inc. v. Pauley, a Lutheran church in Missouri applied for a state recycling program grant to build a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s playground with a surface made from recycled tires. The State of Missouri denied the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s application based on a provision of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution stating, Ã¢â¬Å"no money shall ever be taken from the public treasury, directly or indirectly, in aid of any church, section or denomination of religion.Ã¢â¬ The church sued Missouri, claiming the action had violated its First and Fourteenth Amendment rights. The court of appeals dismissed the suit, thus upholding the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s action. Abortion and WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Rights A Texas law enacted in 2013 required abortion clinics in that state to comply with the same standards as hospitals, including requiring the clinicsÃ¢â¬â¢ doctors to have admitting privileges at hospital within 30 miles of the abortion clinic. Citing the law as the cause, several abortion clinics in the state have closed their doors. In the case of Whole Womans Health v. Hellerstedt, to be heard by the Supreme Court in March 2016, the plaintiffs argue that the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals was wrong in upholding the law. Based on his past decisions dealing with questions of the rights of the states in general and abortion specifically, Justice Scalia was expected to vote to uphold the lower courtÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling. Update: In a major victory forÃ abortion rights supporters, the Supreme Court on June 27, 2016 rejected the Texas law regulating abortion clinics and practitioners in a 5-3 decision.Ã Immigration and Presidential Powers In 2014, President Obama issued an executive order that would allow more illegal immigrants to remain in the U.S. under the Ã¢â¬Å"deferred actionÃ¢â¬ deportation program created in 2012, also by an Obama executive order. Ruling that ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s action violated the Administrative Procedure Act, the law loosely regulating the federal regulations, a federal judge in Texas barred the government from implementing the order. The judgeÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling was then upheld by a three-judge panel of the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals. In the case of United States v. Texas, the White House is asking the Supreme Court to overturn the 5th Circuit panelÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. Justice Scalia was expected to vote to uphold the 5th CircuitÃ¢â¬â¢s decision, thus blocking the White House from implementing the order by a 5-4 vote. A 4-4 tie vote would have the same result. In this case, however, the Supreme Court might express its intention to reconsider the case after a ninth justice has been seated. Update: On June 23, 2016, the Supreme Court issue a split 4-4 Ã¢â¬Å"no-decision,Ã¢â¬ thus allowing the Texas courtÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling to stand and blocking President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s executive order on immigration from taking effect. The ruling could affect more than 4 million undocumented immigrants seeking to apply for the deferred action programs in order to stay in the United States. The one-sentence ruling issued by the Supreme Court simply read: Ã¢â¬Å"The judgment [of the lower court] is affirmed by an equally divided Court.Ã¢â¬ Equal Representation: Ã¢â¬ËOne Person, One VoteÃ¢â¬â¢ It may be a sleeper, but the case of Evenwel v. Abbott could affect the number of votes your state gets in Congress and thus the electoral college system. Under Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution, the number of seats allocated to each state in the House of Representatives is based on the Ã¢â¬Å"populationÃ¢â¬ of the state or its congressional districts as counted in the most recent U.S. census. Shortly after each decennial census, Congress adjusts each stateÃ¢â¬â¢s representation through a process called Ã¢â¬Å"apportionment.Ã¢â¬ In 1964, the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s landmark Ã¢â¬Å"one person, one voteÃ¢â¬ decision ordered the states to use generally equal populations in drawing the boundaries of their congressional districts. However, the court at the time failed to precisely define Ã¢â¬Å"populationÃ¢â¬ as meaning all people, or only eligible voters. In the past, the term has been taken to mean the total number of people living in the state or district as counted by the census. In deciding the Evenwel v. Abbott case, the Supreme Court will be called on to more clearly define Ã¢â¬Å"populationÃ¢â¬ for purposes of congressional representation. The plaintiffs in the case contend that the 2010 congressional redistricting plan adopted by the state of Texas violated their rights to equal representation under the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. They claim that their rights to equal representation had been diluted because the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s plan had counted everyone Ã¢â¬â not just eligible voters. As a result, claim the plaintiffs, eligible voters in some districts have more power than those in other districts. A three-judge panel of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held against the plaintiffs, finding that the Equal Protection Clause allows the states to apply total population when drawing their congressional districts. Once again, a 4-4 tie vote by the Supreme Court would allow the lower courtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to stand, but without affecting apportionment practices in other states.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Raising Capital - Assignment Example Underfunding is the major challenge facing new and existing business. Most entrepreneurs borrow enough money for setting up a business, but they lack extra cash to help in operations during the startup phase, when cash outflow is higher than the cash inflow (The Entrepreneurial Dialogues, 2015). The fit between the capital providers and the business seeking for capital is usually problematic. In most cases, there exist large disparity between the financial and the economic status of the business seeking capital and the requirements of financial options available to different funding groups. Some entrepreneurs submit applications that are not consistent with the funderÃ¢â¬â¢s mandate. Often, entrepreneurs who operate in highly saturated markets that make the differentiation hard approach funding agencies. The agencies find business in high-saturated areas unattractive since it makes it hard for entrepreneurs to come up with unique business opportunities The issue here is the length of time it takes to access the funding. Most entrepreneurs lack awareness about the procedure and courses of action involved in getting equity funding. The process in some institutions tends to be bureaucratic and heavily laden with red tape and protocols as funders endeavor to get confidence and assurance when granting the funds to entrepreneurs. The Entrepreneurial Dialogues (2015). State of Entrepreneurship in South Africa. Web. February 10, 2015. Retrieved from